Background: The usefulness of studying posture and its modifications due to locomotor deficiencies of multiple origins has been widely proven in humans. To assess its suitability in the canine species, static posturography and dynamic pedobarography were performed on lame dogs affected with unilateral elbow dysplasia and cranial cruciate ligament rupture by using a pressure platform. With this objective, statokinesiograms and stabilograms, the percentage of pressure distribution between limbs, paw area, mean pressure, and peak pressure, were obtained from lame and sound dogs. These data were compared with Peak Vertical Force values originated from a force platform in the same recording sessions. Results: Significant differences were found in the parameters mentioned above between sound and lame dogs and limbs. Conclusions: Posturography and pedobarography are useful and reliable for the monitoring of fore and hindlimb lameness in dogs, providing a new set of parameters for lameness detection.
The goal of this study was to objectively assess the effect of a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivate in English bulldogs with stifle degenerative joint disease secondary to cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). We used a force platform and affixed electrogoniometers to measure peak vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse (VI), stance time (ST), and angular range of motion (AROM), from 12 lame client-owned English bulldogs with post-CCLR stifle joint abnormalities. The 12 affected subjects were treated with 4 intra-articular injections of PRP, at 30-day intervals. Ten untreated, sound English bulldogs were used as a reference group. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using a linear mixed effects model. Mean values of PVF, VI, ST, and AROM were improved within the first 3 months post-treatment in the CCLR group, with mean measured changes increasing to maximum 4.56% body weight gain, 1.5% body weight/second, 0.07 seconds, and 6.18 degrees, respectively. The effects declined progressively after the treatment interval, ending at nearly initial levels after 6 months. This study demonstrates that dogs with CCLR treated with intra-articular PRP had improved PVF, VI, ST, and AROM over time; the duration of effect was waning by the end of the post-treatment period.
We assessed the risk of human pulmonary dirofilariasis in the Canary Islands, hyperendemic for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis), a zoonotic vector-borne infection. For this purpose, 1479 inhabitants were tested for anti-D. immitis antibodies. Four of the 7 islands presented high seroprevalences (from 6.2 to 12.7%), therefore high exposure to the parasite and risk of zoonotic infection. These corresponded to those islands with high canine prevalences of dirofilariasis and favourable climatic conditions for the development of mosquito vectors. The lowest prevalences (from 0 to 1.6%) were found in the desert islands and those with low canine prevalences of heartworm. Seroprevalences were very variable inside each island as well, being related to the climate and demographic factors. Human pulmonary dirofilariasis is an emerging zoonosis worldwide which frequently goes undiagnosed. Serological studies could be useful for the correct evaluation of the risk of infection among the human population, and study of the health implications of the continuous contact with the parasite in endemic areas. Sanitary authorities should be aware of the current epidemiological data, and physicians should include human dirofilariasis in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules.
BIRD STUDY, 2017
Natalia Montesdeoca, Pascual Calabuig, Juan A. Corbera, John E. Cooper & Jorge Orós
a Veterinary Faculty, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Arucas Las Palmas, Spain; b Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; c Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK
Capsule: Anthropogenic factors were identified as the main threats to wild birds in Gran Canaria.
Aims: To analyse the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large sample of selected orders of birds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre (TWRC) in Gran Canaria over 11 years, and to analyse the outcomes of such rehabilitation.
Methods: The records of 2390 birds were analysed. Ten primary causes of morbidity were identified: trauma, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, infectious/parasitic disease, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, glue trapping, captivity, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The rates of the final outcome categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, release Rr, and permanent captivity Cr), the time until death, and the length of stay were studied.
Results: The Eurasian Stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus was the species most frequently admitted (20.29%), followed by the Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula (13.47%). The most frequent cause of morbidity was trauma (27.82%). The final outcomes of birds admitted alive were Er = 16.69%, Mr = 26.53%, Rr = 54%, and Cr = 2.76%.
Conclusions: This survey provides useful information for the conservation and welfare of these bird species. The successful release rate achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation centres for the conservation of birds.
Carretón, E.a, Cerón, J.J.b, Martínez-Subiela, S.b, Tvarijonaviciute, A.b, Caro-Vadillo, A.c, Montoya-Alonso, J.A.a
Background: Canine heartworm infection is characterized by pulmonary endarteritis and pulmonary hypertension (PH). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PH with the concentrations of different positive (C-reactive protein [CRP] and haptoglobin [Hp]) and negative (albumin and paraoxonase-1 [PON-1]) acute phase proteins (APP), as well as the oxidative stress, by measuring glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 27 heartworm-infected dogs on Day 0 (diagnosis) and Day 120 (1 month after the last adulticide injection). Presence/absence of PH was determined by the Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility (RPAD) Index. Results: On Day 0, 62.9% of the dogs showed PH. Concentrations of CRP and Hp were higher in dogs with PH, especially in dogs with moderate-severe PH (P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively). Albumin and PON-1 concentrations were higher in dogs without PH (P < 0.05 for albumin). On Day 120, 59.2% of the dogs presented with PH; CRP decreased while Hp increased (P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively). Also, albumin and PON-1 rose, especially in absence of PH. There were not significant changes in the serum values of GPx and TAC. Conclusions: CRP and Hp have a potential prognostic role in dogs with dirofilariasis because increases in positive APP correlated with presence and severity of PH. CRP decreased, but Hp persisted at an elevated level in dogs with PH 1 month after the end of the adulticide treatment. CRP and Hp could work as early biomarkers of PH and be useful to stage the disease and to monitor the evolution of the patient and indirectly evaluate the persistence of arterial damage after the parasites have been eliminated. Albumin and PON-1 also showed potential value as markers of PH, although further research is necessary to determine its utility.
Carretón, E, Morchón, R.b, Montoya-Alonso, J.A.
In heartworm disease, several biomarkers of cardiopulmonary injury and inflammatory activity have been studied during the recent years. D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product present after a clot is degraded, which has been reported to provide support for the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in heartworm disease. Furthermore, concentrations increment with increased disease severity and during the adulticide treatment. This increase in concentration has proved to be valuable. Cardiac biomarkers troponin I, myoglobin and NT-proBNP demonstrated presence of myocardial injury and heart failure, especially in chronic infections, which in some cases, slightly improve after the adulticide treatment. An acute phase response in dogs with Dirofilaria immitis, characterized by variations of acute phase proteins (APP), has been reported, indicating inflammatory processes that could contribute to disease progression. Among them, C-reactive protein (CRP) increases according to the severity of the disease; and a strong correlation between pulmonary hypertension and CRP has been observed. In cats, little work has been done to ascertain the utility of these biomarkers in feline heartworm; the only published study in D. immitis-seropositive cats reported significantly higher concentrations in positive APP serum amyloid A, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin.
Corbera JA1, Morales I1, Martin S1, Arencibia A2, Gutierrez C1.
A rare case of congenital supernumerary teeth, also known as hyperdontia, observed in a healthy 8-month-old female ewe is presented. The congenital defect consisted of the presence of 2 incisor teeth embedded in the lateral areas of the dental pad. The anomaly was found during a routine physical examination and no other congenital abnormalities were found in the patient. No prior congenital abnormalities had been seen in the herd and the study of possible associated teratogenic factors was inconclusive. To the authors’ knowledge, this ovine odontogenic abnormality has not been described in the literature and appears to be an extraordinarily rare condition.
Aguilar-García, D.a, Fernández-Sarmiento, J.A.a, Granados, M.D.M.a, Morgaz, J.a, Navarrete, R.a, Carrillo, J.M.b, Vilar, J.M.c, Cugat, R.d, Domínguez, J.M.a
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Volume 19, Issue 6, 1 June 2017, Pages 693-696
Silvestre-Ferreira, A.C., Vieira, L., Vilhena, H., Cerón, J.J., Tvarijonaviciute, A., Montoya-Alonso, J.A., Carretón, E., Pastor, J.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterise the response of acute phase proteins (APPs) in cats seropositive for Dirofilaria immitis and to its endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia. Methods: The APPs serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) were measured in 25 seropositive cats and in 16 healthy seronegative cats. Results: SAA and Cp concentrations were significantly higher in animals with D immitis seropositivity that exhibited clinical signs related to the disease, and Hp was elevated in all D immitis-seropositive animals. There was no significant correlation between APPs and D immitis or Wolbachia species antibody titres. Conclusions and relevance: An association between feline seropositivity to D immitis and APP response was demonstrated. Increases in serum SAA and Cp concentrations were related to D immitis-associated clinical signs, whereas Hp increased in all seropositive animals.Article